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Chronic Fatigue and Fibromyalgia
A nitric oxide vicious cycle

Update, December 2006
All my research has led me back to one thing: Mercury. It fits in perfectly.
Mercury affects the thyroid, which alters calcium regulation.
Mercury affects the glutamate-related enzymes.
Mercury hence causes excess glutamate leves + excess calcium levels.
Read the rest of the article and all falls in place.
Genetic differences can play a role: In schizophrenics there is a gene that screws up glutamate handling in the brain, for example.

Update, December 2003
Virtually all chronic fatigue symptoms I had have disappeared. I have discovered what was the cause: Extremely high electrosmog levels in my appartment.
When I moved back home to my parents place in the country, the energy levels returned very soon afterwards. In rural France I had no problems what so ever. I am not saying every CFS is caused by electrosmog (read: DECT wireless phones, cellular phones antenna's, cellular phones, UMTS, digitenne, etc), but it would be wise to do some research in that direction.
More on that also on the index page. Please give it a look and also be sure to read the book review on it. Also check the links section for links to Homo Optimus websites for more information.
The remaining bouts of low-energy I had, were stopped by using the extremely powerful "Homo Optimus diet" by Dr. Kwasniewski from Poland.
More on electrosmog can be found on the index page.
Below are my other observations I made in 2002 and before. The mycoplasma is still a possible theory, but at least it wasn't the determining factor in my case. Please read all material below and do your own research and draw your own conclusions. Good luck !

BREAKING NEWS, Monday 9th of January 2002

Last night my brain wasn't sleeping while I was..
This is what I came up with this morning:

I believe the mycoplasma theory might be the truth afterall..
Does this mean all the things I already wrote down about CFS and the nitric oxid vicious cycle is nonsense.. No, not at all..
Let's put it in perspective:

The mycoplasma is the main trigger of the CFS.
It causes the upregulated immune system, cytokines and nitric oxide.
The upregulated nitric oxide then feeds the nitric oxide vicious cycle.
This explains why the licorice works: I downregulates immune system by stopping the liver from filtering out the cortisol.
This downregulates the nitric oxide production and the nitric oxide caused chronic fatigue disappears..

The mycoplasma is still there however. When one stops the licorice, the vicious cycle restarts: The mycoplasma feeds the NO-vicious cycle by upregulating the immune system..
That's also why the pain in FM doesn't disappear when one uses the licorice. The licorice only stops the NO-caused damage. The destruction and deformation of the red blood cells still takes place. The excess cyanide in the blood, caused by the breaking up of urea by the mycoplasma, crystalizes inside the red blood cells. The cyanide only crystallizes on places where the blood pressure is low. This is exactly on the tender-places of fibromyalgia patients....

I think the proof is overwhelming: 70% of the CFS patients have mycoplasma and I think there might be some false negatives among these. 60% of Crohn's patients have mycoplasma. My mother has another strange "auto-immune" disease, sarcoidosis. Mycoplasma is also linked to this disease...

The first basic steps in treating:

Mycoplasma is an anaerobic bacteria-like organism.
This means it thrives in places where there is less oxygen and it primarily feeds on glucose.
* Use the low-carb or even zero-carb diet to take away the glucose from the mycoplasma.. All other cells will happily go on using fatty acids and ketones. The mycoplasma will starve or will at least stop to thrive..
* Use DMSO as an alternative way to get oxygen to the cells
* Use hydrocobalamine (Vitamin B12b), which is a very potent nitric oxide scavenger *AND* it filters the cyanide in the blood

Suggestive evidence:
* Captain David Williams treated the CFS with licorice successfully. The pains didn't disappear however. When he went on a low-carb diet the pains disappeared for the largest part..

Please think about it and let me know what you think of it,
If this is true (I firmly think it is), this is revolutionary !

Thanks for reading,

The Netherlands

The original article as of 2001/2002:
Below you find a new hypothesis and treatment for some cases of chronic fatigue and fibromyalgia. A large percentage of the CFS and FM sufferers share the following characteristics: Low blood pressure, low eryhthrocytes, low sodium levels, high potassium levels. Often accompanied by (perhaps undiagnosed yet) hypoglycemia. If you don't have these characteristics, then you have a different type of CFS / FM and this proposed treatment might not be effective.

I was able to construct a new hypothesis, because of the the following very interesting articles:

  • Captain David Williams, Vicious Cycle Theory of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Fibromyalgia
  • Proposed Cause and Cure for Chronic Fatigue & Fibromyalgia and the testimonial on David Gregg's Site
  • Marilyn J. Kerr - My Remission and How I Did It

  • In fact, all I did was combining the information from these three CFS articles and remissions and finding the links. Most of the nitric oxide theory is based on the fantastic work already done by Dr. Baschetti and Captain David Williams. I think David Gregg's theory is correct also and it shows in high detail one side of the theory. The theory presented here complements his theory and vice versa.

    New hypothesis: Adrenal insufficiency caused chronic fatigue
    When hypomagnesia is present, or/and the ratio magnesium/calcium is low (lots of calcium, relatively low magnesium levels), the excess calcium levels will cause excess calcium influx into all living cells. This is because magnesium, can only act as a calcium-channel blocker if it is in the right balance with calcium. The calcium influx will cause nitric oxide (NO) synthesis inside the cells. The NO suppresses the adrenals, causing adrenal sufficiency. The low cortisol levels will further increase NO synthesis. This is because the low cortisol levels are making the immune system hyper. This means upregulated nitric oxide and other cytokines. The increased nitric oxide levels will further depress the adrenals. Vicious Cycle.

    How does calcium influx cause NO synthesis
    The calcium binds to calmodulin, which in turn activates different enzymes, including neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS). The NOS increases the formation of nitric oxide (NO).

    How does NO cause glutathion depletion
    NO, together with the superoxide anion, forms peroxynitrite, which in turn oxidizes the glutathione.

    How do low cortisol levels cause low eryhtrocytes
    Cortisol stimulates erythropoiesis (the building of new red blood cells). Low cortisol levels explain the borderline anemia commonly seen in CFS and FM, which is not iron anemia. It can only be detected by checking the HTC, because hemoglobin levels will look normal.

    Eating lots of carbohydrates will cause excess magnesium excretion, which will result in a low magnesiun/calcium ratio
    Not enough magnesium left to act as calcium channel blocker, result: Increased calcium influx
    Calcium influx will cause excess NO production
    High NO levels will suppress adrenal hormone production
    Low adrenal hormone levels will further increase high NO, inducing a vicous cycle

    Other ways to start the NO vicious cycle
    Ofcourse, the magnesium deficiency is just one way to start the vicious cycle. Any condition that causes excess NO will be able to start the vicious cycle. Think of intestinal bacteria, a viral infection, zinc deficiency, low antioxidant status, elevated stress levels for prolonged times.

    How does adrenal insufficiency cause low blood pressure, hyperkalemia and sodium deficiency ?
    The adrenals produce cortisol, but also aldosterone, which regulates blood pressure, sodium and potassium balance.. Low levels of aldosterone will cause the hyperkalemia, the sodium deficiency and the low blood pressure.. Besides that NO is a potent vascodilator. Excess NO levels in the blood will cause low blood pressure.

    How can L-lysine be of any help ?
    L-arginine, an amino acid is the direct precursor of NO. Without L-arginine, no NO can be formed. Arginine uptake into neurons is controlled by non-NMDA glutamate receptors. This became evident when these receptors were blocked by argninine-uptake inhibitors such as L-lysine which functions as
    antagonist of these glutamate receptors. Eating less arginine and increase the lysine intake will suppress the NO production.

    Suggestive evidence: Magnesium
    This article shows that magnesium levels are often low in CFS patients and most respond favorably to magnesium supplementation. Patients taking magnesium supplements report greater energy levels, improved emotional state, and less pain than those taking a placebo.

    Intracellular magnesium deficiency is common in CFS patients
    Magnesium, B vitamins benefit CFS patients.
    As additional supplements for CFS patients, the researchers recommend vitamin B12, high doses of the antioxidants (vitamins C and E and beta carotene) and COQ10.
    Magnesium stops calcium from entering the cell, B12 is a very potent nitric oxide scavenger, Q10 protects against NO generation (is explained below).

    Suggestive evidence: L-lysine
    The group has found that cystinuria, a fairly common genetic condition that is indicated in part by high urinary lysine levels (more than 20% of urine sample) occurs four times more frequently in CFS patients. This information can be useful in treatment.

    Suggestive evidence: Vitamins, mineral and antioxident supplements very useful
    David Gregg already discovered a successfull way to treat both CFS and FM. The treatment consists of a very rich blend of potent antioxidants, minerals and vitamins. I think this somehow alleviates NO-caused stress and by doing this it might break the vicious cycle. Possibly the magnesium and zinc in the blend is of great importance also. Check the B12 (1000mcg), Q10 (10mg), lysine (800mg), ginkgo biloba (400mg) contents. B12 is a very potent nitric oxide scavenger, Q10 protects against NO, lysine prevents entry of arginine (NO-precursor) into the cells, ginkgo biloba inhibits NO-synthesis. Further the DMSO and MSM act as an alternative oxygen transport mechanism (besides the red blood cells) and it also increases the absorption of the vitamins and minerals. I think these proof to be very effective.

    How does licorice help ?
    Dr. Baschetti from Italy suffered from CFS for 20 years. He has cured his CFS by using licorice. Licorice contains glycyrrhizic acid. Glycyrrhizic acid is a 11 beta-HSD inhibitor. This is the hormone that deactivates cortisol, converting it into the inactive cortison. In CFS and FM patients where there is low blood pressure, low eryhtrocytes, low sodium and hyper kalium, the licorice is very effective. The low cortisol levels will be able to be more effective when the glycyrrhizic acids inhibits the conversion of cortisol into cortison. Using the licorice virtually relieves all CFS symptoms in many people. It will however be a life-long treatment. Dr. Baschetti thinks some virus has permanently damaged the hypothalmic-pituitare-adrenal axis. After some months of using licorice, one needs to increase the dose a bit and perhaps even start to use small amounts of hydrocortisone some months later. This is because the glucocorticoid receptors were first very sensitive, because of the long time of low-cortisol levels. Not everybody will need the hydrocortisone luckily and some are able to stay in good health using only up to 5 grams of licorice. Dr. Baschetti started with 2 grams a day, and had to increase the dosage to 5 grams daily. He now needs only 4 grams of licorice every day.

    Isn't licorice very dangerous ?
    Many people think licorice is very dangerous when taken for long periods of time. This is definitely true in normal people that have no adrenal insufficiency and correct potassium/sodium levels. The licorice will enhance the cortisol levels, suppressing imune system. Also, the aldosterone levels will increase, which in turn will cause potassium excretion and sodium retention and increased blood pressure. In CFS and FM patients that have low eryhtrocyte levels, low blood pressure, low sodium and hyperkalemia it isn't dangerous at all, because it regulates the cortisol and alodsterone (and other hormones) levels, which in turn regulates blood pressure, sodium and potassium balance.

    Bacterial endotoxins might be involved
    Intestinal bacteria can produce endotoxins, which have been shown to increase NO production. The vicious cycle(s) involved in CFS and FM can only be broken by eradicating these bacteria. This can very often be accompished by following the Specific Carbohydrate Diet by Elaine Gottschall, which starves the bacteria. This diet also heals crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis in most people. In some people, resistant or mutated bacteria might be involved and then also some medications are needed to completely whipe out the bacteria. You can check for intestinal bacteria by doing a urine organic acid test.

    The hypoglycemia and diabetes link
    Because cortisol is insulin's antagonist and vice versa, low cortisol levels will induce high insulin levels when carbohydrates are eaten. These high insulin levels cause fast dropping of blood-sugar levels, which will cause hypoglycemia. Besides that, the high insulin levels will further antagonize cortisol levels, aggrevating the symptoms.

    Combined treatment
    First, check to see if you have lowered eryhtrocyte levels, low blood pressure, sodium deficiency and hyperkalemia. This must all test postive, otherwise you don't have the type of CFS/FM that can be treated with this protocol.
    Next, check the magnesium and calcium levels. If magnesium levels are low or if the magnesium/calcium balance is low, then you also need to supplement magnesium. The only good oral supplement is magnesium-glycinate by Carlson labs. Most other supplements are not well absorbed or contain excitoxins. A transdermal DMSO-magnesium oxide might proof to be very successful and much cheaper than magnesium by IV. Also reduce calcium intake until the magnesium/calcium balance is corrected.
    Use the vitamin, anti-oxidant and mineral blend from David Gregg (or a comparable blend).
    Supplement L-lysine and decrease the arganine intake.
    Further increase Q10 supplementation and ginkgo biloba which both inhibit NOS (read below: Striking resemblance)
    Very important: Stop eating most carbohydrates: No more bread, cookies, pasta, grains, corn, potatoes and no fruit. Insulin is cortisol's antangonist and vice versa.
    Also to prevent the bacteria in the gut from producing the endotoxins, make sure you don't eat carbohydrates that are not fully digested. Use the SCDiet.
    If this doesn't relieve the symptoms, you can also consider to use the licorice. I have a gut feeling that the protocol above will proof to be sufficient already. Be sure to monitor the potassium and sodium levels to make sure the mineral imbalance is turned the other way around.

    Striking Resemblance: Read this testimonial
    Searching the web I found this CFS testimonial..
    Notice the striking resemblances with this proposed treatment.

    A quote:
    First, because people were reporting that they had a lessening of their
    brainfog by using Ginkgo Biloba, I started with that. I had the same
    good results. However, I found it to be very dose dependent - if I
    forgot to take it, the brainfog returned immediately. However, when I
    increased CoQ10 to over 150mg a daily, the brainfog lifted permanently
    and I no longer needed Ginkgo. Additionally, with CoQ10, I can run out
    of it for a day or so and the brainfog doesn't seem to return for
    several days.

    Guess what:
    Co-Enzyme Q10 protects against nitric oxide generation
    Ginkgo Biloba inhibits nitric oxide synthesis

    Neurontin seems to be very effective in raising energy levels in persons with CFS and FM. Neurontin works because it's a glutamate antagonist. This means it depresses glutamate levels. Glutamate opens the voltage dependent calcium channels of the cells. This causes calcium influx, which via the calmodulin enzyme increases nitric oxide synthase, which in turn causes the production of high levels of nitric oxide. Neuronin makes sure the glutamate can't open the calcium door of the cell. So it breaks the vicious cycle.

    But wait, there is even more:
    The Zinc relation
    >Zinc is also a very potent
    >inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. Increased levels of chelatable zinc
    >have been shown to be present in cell cultures of immune
    >cells undergoing apoptosis.
    >By contrast, a zinc deficiency is associated with Parkinson's disease. Levels of zinc in the cerebrospinal fluid of victims are substantially lower than those without Parkinson's. The enzyme superoxide dismutase contains zinc as an essential component. It is normally present in high concentrations in the substantia nigra where it scavenges free radicals. It catalyzes the dismutation of superoxide anions to hydrogen peroxide and oxygen thus exerting a neuroprotective effect. Zinc supplementation produces significant increases in superoxide dismutase activity.
    >Many antioxidants, including superoxide dismutase also require zinc. Zinc levels are lower in the brain and cerebrospinal fluids in patients with Alzheimer's. Zinc deficiency may lead to the destruction of nerve cells and the formation of neurofibrillary tangles and plaques.

    Remember: Nitric oxide + superoxide ---> pyroxinitrite, a free radical

    The link: High calcium levels will antagonize both magnesium and zinc.
    * Low magnesium levels will cause excess calcium influx, causing more NO production
    * Low zinc levels can't inhibit NOS and besides that the very important zinc-dependent superoxide dismutate will be deficient also..

    I also found some studies that show that NOS-inhibitors lessen the skin-problems in the zinc defincients.
    NOS-inhibitors also stop the diarrhea that occurs with zinc deficiency..

    So it would be important to check the calcium, magnesium and zinc levels. If the calcium is relatively high and the zinc and magnesium relatively lower (as in my case), this will cause excess NOS.

    Most people don't know that imbalances will also cause problems, even when the mineral levels are within reference values. We have to check the relative values of the minerals, especially the ones that antagonize the others. This is also the case in depressions: Only the severely depressed really have low magnesium levels, while the normal depressed have normal magnesium levels, but high calcium levels. This imbalance can cause the same symptoms as a magnesium deficiency.

    Possible link with other minerals
    Selenium is an essential element of two antioxidant enzymes that remove lipid hydroperoxides. These are glutathione peroxidase and phosphlipid hydroperoxide dependent glutathione peroxidase. Glutathione levels must be low in CFS patients, because NO forms pyroxinitrite, which oxidizes the glutathione.
    Manganese is an important part of manganese superoxide dismutase, another antioxidant that scavenges the superoxide anion. NO can only form pyroxinitrite when the superoxide anion is available. You will find by checking my mineral levels in the table below, that my natural ability to oppose NO and its products will proof to be very difficult. It's important to replenish the minerals that are deficient. This shows again that minerals are very important for health. Alas, many physicians don't even care about minerals.

    My mineral levels:
    For an example, check my intra- and extracellular mineral levels as of December 2001:
    * Use the mineral interrelationship chart to check how minerals antagonize eachother
    * Green means it's elevated, red means it's below reference values or borderline

      Blood test results  

      PPM/PPB Min Max
    Blood Na 1790 1840 2080
      K 2410 1800 2040
      Ca 51,8 48 60
      Mg 41,8 31 46
      Zn 5,7 4,9 6,5
      Cu 1,2 0,8 1,4
      Se 0,106 0,1 0,5
      Mn 16,3 10 40
      Cr 3,4 1 5
      Pb 19 0 100
      Si 1,5 0,9 20
    Serum Na 3170 3105 3335
      K 148 148 196
      Ca 116 86,2 106
      Mg 22,6 19 24
      Zn 1,1 0,8 1,3
      Cu 1,4 0,7 1,4
    Intracellular Zn 11,8 10 15
      Mg 67,3 50 73
      Cu 0,9 0,6 1,4
      Na 50 200 1010
      K 5409 3610 4495
      Ca 0,4 0 4
      Index values of minerals  
    Mineral Blood Serum Intracellular
    K 254 0 203
    Mg 72 72 75
    Cu 67 100 38
    Cr 60    
    Zn 50 60 36
    Ca 32 151 10
    Mn 21    
    Pb 19    
    Si 3    
    Se 2    
    Na -21 28 -19

    Mineral levels from left to right: blood, serum and intracellular values
    3D chart of all mineral levels

    Note that calcium levels are elevated to 150%, whereas zinc and magnesium are in the normal range.
    Sodium (Na) levels are below normal and potassium (K) levels are elevated 250%.
    Note: I've used index values, where 0 means it's the minimum reference value and 100 means it's the maximum reference value. Values above 100 mean that they're elevated beyond reference values and below 0 are below reference values.

    Update Monday 7th of January 2002
    OK. I've found the first inconsistency: This list shows that calcium deficiency is common in CFS patients. This contradicts my findings that my calcium levels are high and the magnesium levels relatively lower. Perhaps it might still be that the calcium levels, even though they are low, are relatively higher than the magnesium levels. This might still cause the hypomagnesia-like symptoms. I will have to study this further...
    Low Cortisol, Low DHEAs
    OK. This confirms the theory.. I think my DHEAs are also low because I suffer from the main low-DHEAs symptoms: cold hands, temperature regulation, dry skin and brittle hair..
    Every amino acid is low
    It seems like *every* amino acid tested is low in CFS patients. This might explain why a high-protein diet helps ?
    Cytokine and Interferon-gamma (also a cytokine) are both high.
    This confirms the theory: The immune system is hyper because of the low cortisol (confirmed).

    Detailed information on adrenal hormones
    First an overview of the hormones produced by the adrenals:
    Source: The Adrenal Gland

    The adrenal gland secretes steroid hormones derived from cholesterol.

    Acts on kidney, regulates H2O and electrolyte balance
    Secretion stimulated by:
    * dehydration
    * low Na+ (sodium deficiency)
    * low ECF volume
    * high K+ (hyperkalemia)
    * decrease in blood volume & pressure

    Mechanism of stimulating adrenal cortex:
    * stimulates adrenal cortex via renin-angiotensin mechanism to release aldosterone

    * Increases Na+ kidney tubular reabsorption, which prevents Na+ depletion
    * H2O retained by Osmosis, increasing ECF volume & blood pressure
    * increases retention of Cl- & HCO3- which increases buffering capacity of blood
    * decreases tubular reabsorption of K+ & increases K+ excretion
    * promotes excretion of H+ & reduces blood acidity

    regulate metabolism, resistance to stress, help body to adapt to external changes & irregular food intake
    * Secreted on diurnal cycle associated with activity level
    * Cortisol (hydrocortisone), corticosterone & cortisone
    * Increases liver gluconeogenesis from amino acids & lactic acid, increasing blood glucose levels without reducing glycogen stores
    * Increases protein breakdown in muscle, amino acid transport to liver to synthesize plasma proteins or to other cells for ATP synthesis, reduces stored tissue protein
    * Increases lipid breakdown in adipose & mobilizes fatty acids for cellular respiration, save glucose for the brain
    * Stress resistance - above & vasoconstriction to raise blood pressure
    * Inhibit cellular inflammatory response (mast cells, phagocytes) but also retard wound healing, depresses cartilage & bone formation, good for chronic inflammatory disorders
    * Depress immune response - high doses in organ transplants

    Please review all the functions of these hormones and see for yourself that most CFS symptoms can be explained by low cortisol and low aldosterone.

    Elevated calcium levels due to thyroid hypofunction !
    My serum calcium levels are 50% elevated (116, normal range is 86-106). I think this has nothing to do with eating habits or low magnesium intake. Instead I propose it's because of thyroid hypofunction caused by adrenal insufficiency:

    I propose that the thyroid hormones are also low. This would explain my high calcium levels, as the parafollicular cells of the thyroid should secrete calcitonin, which reduces free ionized Ca+ level. Source: The Thyroid Gland.

    Quote from Captain David Williams:
    Thyroid hypofunction has been noted in hypoadrenalism; however, it has been found counterproductive to treat this dysfunction with thyroid hormones (link). Rather, treating the glucocorticoiddeficiency in reported to be more succesful in raising thyroid output.

    So it seems that the adrenal insufficiency also causes thyroid hypofunction. This can't be treated by thyroid hormones. The thyroid will start to function again when the adrenal hormones are ok. The adrenal hormone levels can be increased directly by prednison or indirectly by licorice or even less direct by breaking the nitric oxide vicious cycle.

    Calcitonin is a hormone produced in the C cells of the thyroid gland that helps regulate blood calcium by slowing down the amount of calcium released from the bones. Calcitonin works in opposition to PTH and 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D.

    Also produced by parafollicular cells within the thyroid is the polypeptide hormone calcitonin. It funtions in calcium maintainence to decrease the levels of calcium in the blood. When serum calcium levels are excessive, calcitonin is released. It inhibits bone resorption (by inhibiting osteoclast activity), allows the loss of calcium in the urine and therefore decreases calcium in the blood. It opposes the action of parathyroid hormone and has been used clinically for the treatment of osteoporosis. Source

    Since calcitonin also affects phoshorous metabolism in parallel to calcium, high phosphorous levels can also be suspected. Alas, my phoshphorous levels weren't tested.

    However, this information shows that calcitonin has at best a minor role in regulating blood concentrations of calcium:
    Despite the effects on calcium described above, it seems that calcitonin has at best a minor role in regulating blood concentrations of calcium. One interesting piece of evidence to support this statement is that humans with chronically increased (medullary thyroid cancer) or decreased (surgical removal of the thyroid gland) levels of calcitonin in blood do not show alterations from normal in serum calcium. Source

    The fact that calcitonin is successfully used to treat hypercalcemia *does* show that calcitonin does affect calcium blood concentrations:
    There are several therapeutic uses for calcitonin. It is used to treat hypercalcemia resulting from a number of causes, and has been a valuable therapy for Paget disease, which is a disorder in bone remodeling. Calcitonin also appears to be a valuable aid in the management of certain types of osteoporosis. Source

    Parathyroid hyperfunction ?
    The parathyroid hormones oppose the calcitonin. Could this mean that the parathyroid is functioning hyper ? Or is the low-calcitonin secretion enough to cause the high serum calcium levels. Is the parathyroid function affected by adrenal insufficiency ? This is to be investigated...
    Parathyroid The four parathyroid glands lie on top of the thyroid gland in seperate nodes spread out to the four quandrants of the thyroid. Parathyroid homone is under direct feedback control of circulating levels of calcium. If calcium levels fall, then parathyroid hormone is released. As calcium levels rise, release of the hormone is reduced. Parathyroid homone acts on bones, the kidneys and the intestines to reabsorb calcium. Source

    Hyperparathyroidism because of low calcitonin, which normally antagonizes parathyroid hormones ?
    Pharmacologic doses of calcitonin act as an antagonist to PTH, lowering serum calcium and phosphorus, and inhibiting bone reabsorption. Source

    Melatonin is also a nitric oxide scavenger.
    Melatonin, which has a methoxy group in the 5-position and an acetyl side chain, exhibited the most potent scavenging activity among the compounds tested Source

    Melatonin too is a major physiological antioxidant (and hormone) by directly reacting with hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals, or by stimulating the expression of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, or glutathione reductase. Melatonin has also been reported to inhibit nitric oxide synthetase. Source

    Melatonin: Method of action

    a) Melatonin receptors are located in the plasma membrame of the cells (AC:Adenylatcyclase)
    b) Melatonin enters the cell and binds to the Retinsaure-Z-Rezeptor (German). This is a steroidhormone receptor.
    c) Melatonin binds to calmodulin and inhibits it to produce the nitric oxide synthase enzyme. It deactivates the calmodulin.
    d) Melatonin is a more effective radical scavenger than glutathion and vitamin E
    Source of chart
    Studies show however that nocturnal melatonin levels are elevated in CFS and FM patients...

    Update, January 8th 2002
    The increased blood acidity might cause the high calcium levels. Both calcium and phosphorous are involved.

    Guaifenesein works because it pulls calcium out of the body. Many with FMS have reported positive results.
    Check the Guaifenesin-FM homepage and the Beat CFS and FMS site for detailed information.

    High calcium levels might be caused by:
    * Low thyroid hormones (calcitonin)
    * Hyperparathyroid hormones
    * Acidosis because of low aldosterone
    * Excessive vitamin D

    B12 as a nitric oxide scavanger and cyanide scavenger
    B12 is a very potent nitric oxide scavenger. CFS patients have almost no B12 in the central nervous system and the brain. The B12 to use is hydrocobalamin. Another theory says that CFS is caused by biochemical warfare. The mycoplasma that's in everyone today, will wake up when your immune system is down. A mycoplasma is a pathogenic organism, so minute than normal blood and tissue tests will not reveal its presence as the source of the disease. It's smaller than any virus or bacteria.
    An MRI scan of the brain of a teenage girl with chronic fatigue syndrome displayed a great many scars or punctate lesions in the left frontal lobe area where portions of the brain had literally dissolved and been replaced by scar tissue. This caused cognitive impairment, memory impairment, etc. And what was the cause of the scarring? The mycoplasma. So there is very concrete physical evidence of these tragic diseases, even though doctors continue to say they don't know where it comes from or what they can do about it. Source: Mycoplasm article

    Research on Mycoplasma
    Mycoplasmas are considered to be the smallest bacteria species known, a few years ago not even considered to be "true" bacteria, as they only survive intracellularly. The amount of research on Mycoplasma in patients with CFS is growing - as is research on Mycoplasma in other chronic diseases, such as Gulf War Syndrome Source: Research on Mycoplasma

    * Please note, this is the first draft version I came up with..
    * All comments appreciated
    * Revision: The 8th of January 2002

    Be sure to check the library for many more studies and articles on adrenal insufficiency caused CFS and FM

    Please note: The information on this website is not a recommendation for treatment. Anyone reading it should consult his/her physician before considering treatment. The author and publisher can't be held responsible for anything. Use on your own risk.